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Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer (* 31 October 1632 – † December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle class life. Recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death; he was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbraken's major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting (Grand Theatre of Dutch Painters and Women Artists). His works are largely genre pieces and portraits, with the exception of two cityscapes and two allegories. Only three paintings are dated: The Procuress (1656, Dresden, Gemäldegalerie), The Astronomer (1668, Paris, Louvre), and The Geographer (1669, Frankfurt, Städelsches Kunstinstitut).